Sinusitis | Symptoms, Types, Diagnosis & Treatment of Sinusitis

Types of sinusitis

1. Acute sinusitis

Acute sinusitis is a common condition in children and adults that occurs when the sinus cavities become inflamed and filled with fluid, resulting in a blocked airway. This can lead to various symptoms, including a stuffy nose, facial pain, headache, and sore throat. In some instances, a fever and postnasal drip may also be present. The distinct feature is that acute sinusitis symptoms happen over a short period and do not last months.

It is also important to note that children with compromised immune systems or underlying medical conditions may be more susceptible to developing acute sinusitis.

2. Chronic sinusitis

Chronic sinusitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation in the sinuses, similar to acute sinusitis. But in this case, it is caused by a combination of factors such as mucous stagnation, allergies, and microorganisms that stay for a long time in the same place, such as fungi.

Mucous stagnation occurs when the sinuses are not adequately ventilated, and fluid becomes trapped inside them. Allergies can also lead to chronic sinusitis as the body creates an exaggerated immune response to a foreign substance. Fungal infections, such as those caused by mold or yeast, can also cause chronic sinusitis.

Since this type of sinusitis is maintained for months or even years, chronic sinusitis can also cause various other problems, such as sleep apnea, dental issues, ear infections, and asthma.

3. Bacteria usually involved in sinusitis

As mentioned above, sinusitis can be caused by a variety of bacterial and viral infections. The most common pathogens linked to sinusitis are Rhinovirus, influenza, parainfluenza, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenza.

Rhinovirus is the most frequent cause of the common cold and is the most common bacteria involved in sinus infections. Influenza, parainfluenza, S. aureus, and S. pneumoniae can also cause severe sinus infections. H. influenza is a common cause of sinusitis in children, although it can also affect adults. These bacteria can be spread through direct contact with an infected person, such as sharing drinks or can enter the body through the airways.